“I’ve never spent so many hours at a theater and I’ve never had a better time”: Stage Manager Laraine Gurke on Yeast Nation

Laraine Gurke is Yeast Nation‘s stage manager. Laraine also worked on Ray of Light’s productions of Tommy and The Rocky Horror Show.

Laraine's view from the booth.

Laraine’s view from the booth.

I’m always surprised by how much I learn with each different production I’m involved with. I was… less surprised by how much I learned (and continue to learn) working on Yeast Nation. A new show, a workshop with the creators, a full blown production with 355+ light cues, a set made of spandex, and every cast member wearing their own light-up belly? There is a whole lot of learning potential there. As the stage manager, part of my job is to listen to the ideas from the designers and creative team and do my best to support them however I can and attempt to anticipate any problems. With a new show, there’s the added layer of a changing script. Like most things in theatre, stage managing is not a perfect science. I was prepared to learn.

Working on any production presents its fair share of challenges but when the show is so new there are some extra obstacles. In new work, things usually change constantly since there is no reference point from which to start. Another part of my job is to try to track these changes and make sure that cast, staff, and creative team are on the same page. The continued flexibility from the cast, our director and choreographer made this much easier for me than it could have been.

With this show tech week was a whole new ballgame. I’ve never spent so many hours at a theater and I’ve never had a better time. I’ve never really seen such collaboration between departments and the overall attitude was positive and fun–even at four in the morning. No matter how interesting the material is or how much you’re getting paid, you still have to interact with the people involved and ROLT consistently hires people who are a joy to work with. When I look up at whatever horribly early time it happens to be in the morning and Angrette [set designer], Joe [lighting designer], and Daniel [technical director] are all singing their own off-key, high pitched version of whatever ridiculous 80’s power ballad is blasting from the radio, I know things are going to be just fine.

My job now that the show is open is to maintain the integrity of the production and handle any issues that arise from day to day. Honestly this has been incredibly easy. The energy and consistency from the cast have been spot on and it’s been a blast to watch the show hit its stride. Also, I have to mention our stellar band, lead by music director Ben Prince, and their incredibly even tempos night after night. Everyone who shows up to the Victoria every day makes my job fun and interesting and for that I am very grateful.

Comments { 0 }

#TBT “How do you make five guys and a cast of sixteen sound like a thirty-piece orchestra with full chorus?”: Robbie Cowan on Orchestrating Sweeney Todd

"Did someone say 'impossible task?' I got this"

Robbie “Did someone say ‘impossible task?’” Cowan

This week’s #TBT comes from Robbie Cowan, who music directed and orchestrated our 2012 production of Sweeney Todd, transforming the original thirty-piece orchestration into a five-piece chamber version. His work on the show was called “luminous” and “in the same class as the best of Ligeti, Part, and Adams,” and earned him a Bay Area Theatre Critics Circle Award nomination. Robbie also music directed our Triassic Parq this summer, and is currently the conductor and music director on the second national tour of Anything Goes.

Sweeney-Todd - long

Swing your razor wide.

When I saw ROLT’s Tommy, I was impressed with the production values. A small, regional theatre with practically no outside funding put on a show whose spectacle rivaled that of most touring productions I was seeing come through town? I just couldn’t fathom how they managed.

A short time later, I found out first-hand. When I was asked to music direct Sweeney Todd, I was tasked with creating an orchestration that sounded as rich and full as audiences would expect but was made of only five players. How do you make five guys and a cast of sixteen sound like a thirty-piece orchestra with full chorus?

This scrappy theater company taught me the value in embracing your limitations. Instead of lamenting a lack of resources, you instead use those boundaries as creative inspiration. The director Ben Randle and I created an orchestral design that was intimate and kept people on the edge of their seats, where fewer players made for a more transparent interpretation of the score. At the end of the experience it wasn’t the reviews and accolades that I appreciated–it was the understanding that with the right people and the right attitude, almost anything is possible.


And just because we can’t resist, here’s Robbie “auditioning” for our production of Into the Woods last year:

Comments { 0 }

How does a yeast move?

Excuse me…YEASTS?!


Audiences aren’t the only ones surprised. Our very own production team had to wrap their minds around telling the story of yeasts. How human are they? We knew the show shouldn’t feel modern, but it shouldn’t feel too literally in the past, either; the script references contemporary science and acknowledges the audience, so it’s not exactly a method acting experience (because really, what would that even look like? Probably pretty funny, actually). The yeasts’ world is, at the risk of sounding like a theater professor, a microcosm for contemporary humanity. They tell our story through a different lens, but their flaws and humanity are the same as ours.

So WHAT does that mean for movement? “Oftentimes, with a musical, you are beholden to the original choreo’s style. With this show we had the opportunity to create our own brand-new movement, sometimes with the actors’ help,” said director Jason Hoover. Professional help came in the form of Triassic Parq choreographer Dane Paul Andres, who saw endless possibilities: “the challenges of conceptualizing and creating movement for this unique world was an exciting process–the show is unique in so many ways. What initially inspired me in the beginning was the fact that they were a society under water: how to emulate fluidity without being too obvious?”

The choreography ended up reflecting both the realities of the yeasts’ life in the primordial soup–floaty and undulating–and the contemporary music styles in the score. “An integral tool used in the show is a select group of yeasts that accompany the show’s narrator, like a Greek chorus. I tried to reflect that in their movement as they go through out the show with a variety of dance styles,” said Dane. There’s backup pop dancing that would make the Temptations jealous, along with straight-faced while totally absurd interpretive dance moments. The movement reflects the idea that the yeasts take themselves very seriously, but the show doesn’t–at least, not most of the time.


Pictured: not-so-serious seriousness from Will Ferrell in Old School.

“Dane has been fantastic and continues to come up with fresh ideas, never settling for something that wasn’t right,” said Jason. Dane’s thoughts after all this? “I hope the curiosity of dancing yeasts and everything that is Yeast Nation prompt you to see the show. It is that same curiosity that has now earned me a memorable experience!”

ROLT’s West Coast premiere of Yeast Nation will perform October 3-November 1 at the Victoria Theatre in San Francisco. 
Join our mailing list       Learn more about the show        Buy tickets

Comments { 0 }

Triassic Parq Nominated for 11 TBA Awards!


Theatre Bay Area’s TBA Award finalists have been announced…and Triassic Parq is an eleven-time nominee:

Overall Musical Production
Alex Kirschner for Direction
Robbie Cowan for Musical Direction
Wendy Ross Kaufman for Costume Design
Annie Dauber for Set Design
Joe D’Emilio for Lighting Design
Lewis Rawlinson for Principal Male Actor in a Musical
Alex Rodriguez for Featured Male Actor in a Musical
Chelsea Holifield for Featured Female Actor in a Musical
Monica Turner for Featured Female Actor in a Musical
Acting Ensemble in a Musical

Congratulations to all the finalists!

If you missed it, catch our live-tweets of the nomination rollout–and #fakebwaytrivia–on our Twitter feed!

Comments { 0 }

“Frank N. Furter is like the Hamlet of musical theatre roles:” A Rocky Horror Throwback


Jef Valentine as Dr. Frank N. Furter. Photo by Kevin Whittaker.

Jef Valentine played Dr. Frank N. Furter in Ray of Light’s 2008 production of The Rocky Horror Show. Here, he recalls the highs of performing a cult classic for a rabid audience.

When Jason Hoover asked me to contribute a “Throwback Thursday” for Ray of Light Theatre, I was happy to oblige.  We met on their production of The Rocky Horror Show in 2008 and it remains among my favorite theatrical experiences.  The only thing I knew about the company prior to that was the buzz from their production of “Bat Boy”, which was apparently incredible.  Frank N. Furter is sort of the Hamlet of musical theatre  roles for any actor with a hedonistic streak and a penchant for high heels, so I strapped mine on and auditioned at a Filipino community center at 10am in a full face of warpaint.  Aside from Leanne Borghesi, who made her drag king debut as Eddie, I didn’t know a single person involved with the show, but many enduring friendships were about to be formed.  ROLT had always wanted to produce RHS and the excitement was running high. Artistic director Shane Ray oversaw the show with vision, enthusiasm and impressive tact.  Musical director Ben Prince and his kick-ass band brought the music to life.  The cast was packed with extraordinary singers and after Cate Caplin had choreographed the show within an inch of its life, it ran like a scantily clad machine (gloriously underdressed by Mark Koss).  The contribution of Dustin Snyder’s rock star lighting cannot be overstated.  A former vaudeville house and intimate movie palace, the Victoria Theatre was the perfect venue.   The crazy talented cast dove in and quickly made these iconic characters their own.  I made my entrance five numbers in, but I was always in the wings in time for the opening number.  The pyrotechnic vocals of our usherette trio never failed to produce goosebumps and listening to what the audience shouted out during “Science Fiction, Double Feature” would tell me who we were dealing with that night.  Was the audience here to experience the play?  Did they have fresh wisecracks to yell or had they learned their part from the participation album?  Were they drunk?  We got some of each.  The call-outs were sometimes hilarious, often annoying.  I had a bitchslap for the chatty ones early in the evening.  Beyond that, the story took over and the train was just moving too fast.  As Brad Majors, Jason must have had the worst of it.  How many times can you be called asshole while you’re just trying to play your part? (Who knew this would be his last stage appearance with ROLT and he would soon be artistic director of the company?)

Though a longtime fan of the film and Richard O’Brien’s fantastic score, I gained a new appreciation for just how clever and economical the script is.  The show dispenses with the obligatory applause that divides most musicals into predictable chunks, keeping the action moving at a fierce pace.  Except for a moment in the middle of “Sweet Transvestite”, Frank is too busy dashing off to his next destination to wait for signs of approval.  His second song is interrupted by the entrance of a motorcycle.  He terminates the following song with a chainsaw.  His floorshow is cut short by a ray gun.  The message?  Keep up people, this ride ain’t stopping until he’s “Going Home”! I compare being in The Rocky Horror Show to participating in a Nativity scene at Christmas.  The archetypes are in place for a religious experience and most attendees arrive full of the spirit, ready for a catharsis.  I have to admit I’ve learned more relevant life lessons from these characters than most found in the bible.  Though the cross-dressing has largely lost its shock value since Tim Curry’s highly original and genuinely transgressive performance, quaintness does not diminish the message.  Don’t dream it, BE it.  The character is now about as easy to reinvent as Santa Claus or Stanley Kowalski, but it demands to be revisited.   I’ve seen many productions of the play and the best ones honor the traditions, while making the interpretation feel personal.  Looking into the faces of these sexy, hilarious people I was sharing the stage with, the “classic” line readings went out the window as we talked to each other.  The spell was cast and it felt like it was happening for the first time.  I didn’t go out of my way to be shocking.  I just meant to relish every operatic gesture, chasing every shiny object in sight and expecting constant gratification.  Gloria Swanson when it suited me, a lumbering dude in underwear when it didn’t.  Here is a self-absorbed Dionysus whose passion is so contagious that those burned by coming too close don’t seem to regret the experience.  Of course, Eddie isn’t available for comment and those insubordinate servants have gone to a distant planet.

Since our production, I’ve become friends with original cast member Patricia Quinn, who has indulged my every nerdy question about the show’s genesis and phenomenon.  I agree with her that the spirit of the delivery should always be earnest, never vulgar.  Despite the elaborate sexual subtext, the show is a surprisingly kid-friendly romp with B-movie inspirations and high-stakes.  Garter belts or not; the gun is still THE GUN!  For me, the show is ruined when Brad and Janet are played like idiots.  This is a comedy of manners.  How does one behave correctly in the laboratory of a transvestite scientist?  And how can you not love a play that answers existential angst with “don’t get hot and flustered, use a bit of mustard”?  This followed by a dose of mystery substance, which incapacitates its target with pleasure.  In our show, Kit Farrell as Columbia managed a two-minute orgiastic exit under its influence, which never failed to get a hearty round of applause.  Waste not/want not, I ran a finger across the end of the “mustard” dispenser and rubbed it on my gums, which got a laugh.  Then one night my nostril got close enough to the barrel of the futuristic looking device that our sound designer Sharon Boggs shot the gun off, sending it up my nose and me off on a trip of my own.  I have never laughed that hard onstage before or since.  We kept that bit.

Other cherished moments include sitting up in bed after the seduction scene with Janet and seeing a perfect imprint of my eyebrows left on Rebecca Pingree’s inner thighs.  I guess we went there.  I can’t forget Jessica Coker’s dry and exquisitely timed “How sentimental”.  There was the night the “transit beam” in Riff Raff’s mutinous hands failed to go off at the appointed moment during the final scene.  The silence was deafening.  Manuel Caneri and I locked eyes, tried not to crack up and weighed the options. The play can’t end ‘til I’m dead!  Just as I was about to remove a shoe and stick the stiletto through my heart so the curtain could come down, the zap came and down I went.  The sound reminded him to point the gun at me.  Now, I could die for hours and some nights I sort of did.  I took my time crawling into the better light and arranging myself  before my last gasp.  Shameless.  But wait, milkman’s on his way.  Scott Gessford as Rocky then rolled UP a flight of stairs to die by my side.  Son of a bitch.

There was a Goldstar review during our run from a patron who expressed their disappointment that the producers had cast an actual transvestite as Frank N. Furter.  What the hell?  Had I failed because I was believable?  I knew going in that some people would never be happy with anyone in this part but it’s creator.  And yet, it’s the role that most people want to play.   I’m still thinking of things I wish I’d tried, but a great role is like that and art is never finished, it just stops in interesting places.  And this company brought the experience to many interesting places.  It was a dream come true and I’ll always be glad that Ray of Light trusted me with the part.

Comments { 0 }

WTF is Yeast Nation?

Not that kind of yeast.

ROLT’s West Coast premiere of Yeast Nation will perform October 3-November 1 at the Victoria Theatre in San Francisco. 
Join our mailing list       Learn more about the show        Buy tickets


Comments { 0 }

A Finale Worth Fighting About

We can’t tell you the finale’s specifics, but we can tell you that there’s a slow motion fight scene.

FIGHT, FIGHT, FIGHT! You might say we're excited.

FIGHT, FIGHT, FIGHT! (You might say we’re excited.)

Cool, we’re doing this! Wait, how do we do this? We have a big cluster of cast members and we have to give them each choreography that serves the story and is hilarious but stays focused and happens in a very specific amount of time and goes well with the music.

“We have fourteen people up there fighting in slow motion and it’s all chain reactions,” says our fearless leader/director Jason Hoover. “That’s no waaaaaaaaalk in the paaaaaaaark.” (He speaks in slow motion now. It’s weird but we’ll roll with it.)

photo 1 (7)

“Well this is happening” -our game-for-whatever cast

Our course safety is our #1 priority*, so there’s more at stake than what’s funny. Although that helps too. A lot of trial and error is involved. And extra-slow slow motion to protect the actors.

No actors harmed in the creation of this image.

No actors harmed in the creation of this image.

After trying and trying again, we ended up with a fight scene that makes us laugh and doesn’t send anyone to the hospital! It’s just one piece of a truly behemoth finale of epic–really epic, we’re talking primordial yeasts here–but it’s a crucial one, and we can’t wait to show it to audiences in October, along with the rest of this crazy show.

*At least 60% of the time. Just kidding, at least 90%. Our attorney would like us to inform you that that was a joke. Safety is always first!

ROLT’s West Coast premiere of Yeast Nation will perform October 3-November 1 at the Victoria Theatre in San Francisco. 
Join our mailing list       Learn more about the show        Buy tickets


Comments { 0 }

“It all just felt right”: Founding Artistic Director Shane Ray on our 2005 Bat Boy

#TBT! Founding Artistic Director Shane Ray reminisces about ROLT’s 2005 production of Bat Boy, the show that redefined the company.

It was almost ten years ago. Ray of Light had just completed its fourth season with a critically acclaimed production of Grease (I think one critic saw it..and he liked it…very much!). The show had sold out. It wasn’t much of a surprise–we only ran for four performances and the cast included nearly 50 actors! That, and the fact that we were doing Grease, was a solid recipe for a sell-out performance!

Hold me, Bat Boy.

Hold me, Bat Boy.

To date, we had only produced “family theatre.” We had done You’re a Good Man Charlie Brown, The Wizard of Oz, Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat–your standard community theatre shows. We had a core group of performers and staff and it was expanding each year. The company’s name was beginning to be recognized. We were happy to be producing musical theatre in a city where that alone had been proven difficult to sustain. Still, we weren’t feeling fulfilled artistically. We had begun to build up enough of a base to make us feel confident about taking a risk with our next season: producing our next show at the Victoria Theatre in the Mission. The company started its first two seasons in an elementary school auditorium, and had moved to the theater at USF for the last two, so this was a much larger space than we had performed in previously. It was also about 20 times the rent we had previously paid (literally!).

We felt we needed to do a show that had a bit more edge than the shows we had previously done. Somehow, it didn’t seem that Oklahoma would play well at a theater in the heart of SF’s Mission District! We decided on Little Shop of Horrors. It wasn’t a big step away from the classic fare we had been producing but we thought that it had enough darkness that it would make for a good transition show. We set about casting the show and had even secured James Monroe Iglehart (now the Tony Award-winning Genie is Broadway’s Aladdin!) to play the plant. Then, we were hit with a bomb. The national tour was adding San Francisco to its run and our rights were immediately pulled. We were only a month away from starting rehearsals and we already had starting assembling a cast. We had to make a change quickly.

We started brainstorming options to replace Little Shop. James had previously appeared in Bat Boy in TheatreWorks, and the show had done well and there had been a lot of talk about bringing the show to San Francisco. It never came to fruition, even though it seemed like a perfect fit for San Francisco audiences. The content was similar and, conveniently, so was the cast breakdown. In what seemed like a matter of days, things began to take shape. We got the rights to Bat Boy, James moved from playing the plant in Little Shop to directing, and Eli Newsom moved from directing to starring as Bat Boy. Christy Newsom went from playing Audrey to playing Shelley Parker. Everything was falling in to place so perfectly that we barely had time to stress about the fact that we were about to do a largely unknown show in the largest theater that we had ever performed in. And it wasn’t a family show! Where was our audience going to come from? But, we felt really excited. It all just felt right.

The show was a huge success. Artistically, we started to form a true identity. It was also the beginning of our residency at the Victoria. And, most importantly, it was the beginning of Ray of Light being recognized as a leader in producing edgier musical theatre in San Francisco. The rest, as they say, is history.

Comments { 0 }

A Second Shot at the Yeast Nation Photo Shoot

Sometimes the right shot takes two shoots.

A musical about salt-eating yeasts floating in the primordial soup billions of years ago? Naturally, underwater publicity photos were required. At Ray of Light we like to keep a “Why not? Let’s do it” attitude. It’s that spirit that brought us Jerry Springer the OperaTriassic Parq and an 18′ falling wall in CARRIE the Musical.

Cristina Oeschger on stage as Carrie with the falling set that resulted from "Wouldn't it be cool if..."

Cristina Oeschger on stage as Carrie with the scenic equivalent of “Wouldn’t it be cool if…”

In other words, never having done something doesn’t discourage us. Which is how we ended up in an unheated private pool on a chilly April day, armed with a waterproof camera and a wetsuit shirt (for the photographer Erik Scanlon) and a bottle of bourbon (for the very game but very cold actor Kevin Singer).

Kevin smiling through the pain

Kevin smiling through the pain

Our first ever underwater photo shoot was a definite learning experience but sadly netted us no usable images. (It turns out cold water is physically debilitating–even with your game face on and me spoon-feeding you liquor. You’re a trouper, Kevin! Literally.)

Cut to our second attempt. The waterproof camera is back. So are Kevin, Erik, artistic director/Yeast Nation director Jason Hoover and costume designer Amanda Angott. And this time, we have–drumroll please!–a heated pool, courtesy of local actor and friend of the company Lynda Divito.

Kevin, Erik and Jason in the nice warm pool

Kevin, Erik and Jason experiencing the euphoria that pool-heating technology has brought humanity

This time, we managed to get the shots we needed–without giving our actor hypothermia.

A genuine smile from Kevin

A genuine smile from Kevin

The final images will be distributed to press and posted on social media.


The source photograph (left) and final Yeast Nation image (right). Photography and editing by Erik Scanlon.

This shoot was made possible by the entire team’s commitment to the perfect shot. And water heaters. Mostly water heaters.

See all the photos here.

ROLT’s West Coast premiere of Yeast Nation will perform October 3-November 1 at the Victoria Theatre in San Francisco. 
Join our mailing list       Learn more about the show        Buy tickets

Comments { 0 }

“What would happen if the love child of Medea and Groucho Marx got a degree in microbiology and then wrote a musical”: Chorus member Ted Zoldan on Yeast Nation

Ted Zoldan is an actor in Yeast Nation (playing Chorus 3). This is Ted’s third show with Ray of Light, having appeared in the ensemble of Assassins (2011) as Rapunzel’s Prince in Into the Woods (2013).

Ted's face 95% of the time

Ted’s face 99% of the time

Sometimes I think to myself that if the acting thing doesn’t work out, I will need to set up hidden cameras in various rehearsal rooms so I can pretend I’m still a part of the insanity and joy of rehearsing a show. That would be a really terrible idea, both for budgetary and ethical reasons, so thankfully I’m still performing. Being in the ensemble of a show, especially a show as ridiculous as Yeast Nation, means that you feel like you’re part of something bigger than yourself. And as a bonus, when you’re not dancing around like a lunatic or trying desperately to stay on beat while blasting out a contrapuntal harmony, there’s a lot of time spent just watching the action, which in a show like this means a lot of time crying with laughter.

When Greg Kotis was in town for the workshop this summer, he described the show as being heavily influenced by Antigone and Macbeth. I like to describe it as “what would happen if the love child of Medea and Groucho Marx got a degree in microbiology and then wrote a musical,” but I digress. Anyway, as a member of the show’s Greek Chorus I get to be a major part of that mock-solemnity. Apart from being responsible for most of the awesome back-up harmonies that you’re going to hear (look out for us in “Love Equals Pain” –  it’s a doozy),  the Chorus in Yeast Nation serves as the audience’s guide through the grim, slightly off-beat world these primordial tragedians inhabit. Greg’s the master of what I like to call the “slightly awkward defining moment.” The characters in Yeast Nation are dealing with major events (the discovery of love, the end of the world) and they’re experiencing epic emotions, but they don’t quite have the language to express themselves. (Example: describing love as “a conceptual kind of magma”). The chorus seems to know a little bit more about the world, and can guide the principals on their journeys…to an extent. The show manages to be both intensely serious and phenomenally silly at the same time. From the minute I signed on, I knew this show was going to be funny, deep, and very challenging to perform. I underestimated it. This show is very deep, very challenging, and very, very funny.

Since Yeast Nation is intent on telling the stories of our past, it feels appropriate to share a little background: Like every other teenage musical theater fan in 2002, I was obsessed with Greg and Mark’s previous show, Urinetown. It was a jaw-dropping, crazy, “I-didn’t-know-you-could-do-this-in-a-musical” experience (with pee jokes). I saw it on broadway (John Cullum was out but I got to meet Ken Jennings, the original Tobias in Sweeney Todd, and totally fanboyed), and on tour (got to see acting legend Ron Holgate, totally fanboyed again) and wore out two copies of the CD. Despite not knowing Thomas Malthus from Johnny Mathis, the show made me think just as hard as it made me laugh, and if there’s a reason I’ve been paying so much attention to Calfornia’s current water shortage, it can probably be traced back to Greg and Mark’s bold, outrageous satire. Later on, I got a chance to perform in Urinetown (twice, as a matter of fact), and had as much of a blast as I expected. So when the opportunity came up to be a part of Yeast Nation, I grinned, prepared myself for some truly crazy tenor harmonies–which I, even prepared, totally underestimated..this score is like the Revenge of the high G–and jumped in head first. Part of the appeal was a chance to work directly with Greg and Mark, and believe me, that was more than invaluable. Hearing Greg go in-depth, almost line by line, to the cast was like taking a seminar on how to perform this show.  But now that the workshop is over, we get to put the show on its feet and do the work we came here to do.

Yeast Nation is my third show with Ray of Light, and it feels like coming home. This is especially true because when I walk in the rehearsal room, I can see at least one person from almost every show I’ve done since moving to San Francisco. Even the tiny basement room where we rehearse was where I drove myself crazy trying to stage a Mozart opera on a shoestring budget. Whether a quirk of coincidence, or a reflection of Bay Area theatre’s tiny, incestuous casting pool (yeah, it’s the latter), just looking around the room is weirdly nostalgic, but it also means that I am working with a group of people I absolutely 100% trust to be awesome. I can’t think of a team I’d rather be on to explore this wild, bizarre beast of a show. I still don’t know quite what it is yet. I can’t wait to find out.

ROLT’s West Coast premiere of Yeast Nation will perform October 3-November 1 at the Victoria Theatre in San Francisco. 
Join our mailing list       Learn more about the show        Buy tickets

Comments { 0 }